Guinayangan Poblacion History

There is no official record existing as to how and when the place was established. The only record available is a church memorandum which indicated that Guinayangan was a small settlement founded by mostly Visayans from Masbate during the Spanish colonial days, more than 200 years ago. These Visayans were ship builders and established a settlement or a village somewhere near the mouth of the Hiwasayan river.

There were at that time abundant supply of lumber of the first group for ship building. These early settlers prospered rapidly and attracted the moro pirates who raided them and captured many to slaves.

When these early settlers heard another settlement north of them between the area of Katimo and Kinatakutan along the seacoast of now Tagkawayan, (under the leadership of the Mattas and Tupazes also from Masbate) these founders of the Hiwasayan settlement joined the small but brave warriors and founded a new settlement named Guinayangan at the present site of this poblacion.

This combination became so formidable that any attack made by the moros were repealed so that since then the moro piracy came to an end. At this period about 200 years ago, Catholic missionaries belonging to the Franciscans Order have reached this place and founded the town of Guinayangan. The town was about to be named San Luis Gonzaga perhaps, because it was June 21 when they landed on this settlement. But for an incident when a solicitous Spaniards asked the setters what kind of weapon they used in repealing the moro pirates, the settlers responded that it was bow and arrow fitted with a steel known to the moros as gayang, “guina-yangan ang palaso”, meaning “the arrow was fitted with a gayang”. The priest who came at that moment misunderstood the question of the Spaniard. Believed that the question was what the name of the settlement, and because the natives kept reapeting the word guinayangan…., believing that they were still asked the name of their weapon. And for historical purpose, it came to pass the settlement became known to the colonizers as Guinayangan. From this date the local government that was established fell under the Ecclesiastical province of San Luis.

The founded settlement flourished due to the agreeable leadership of the Spanish colonizers and priests. The barangay system was adopted under the head man known as Capitan. Among the first Capitanes were from the Matta and Tupaz families.

There was an existing cooperation between the natives and the colonizers until some Spanish soldiers and Spanish subjects inter married the natives. Among them were the Garcias, the Camposes and the Perillos.

The progress of the settlement was also due to the geographical advantage. Being a seaport, it was also a logging and lumbering center. It was due to those assets that the governadorcillo of the ecclesiastical province of San Luis proclaimed the settlement and independent municipality “municipio independiente” and the “capitanes” were appointed from time to time. Among the capitanes marked subrasalientes were from the old families of the Matta and Tupaz, conspicuously were Capitan Marcos Tupaz (1825), the capitan credited for making new settlement,in what is now called Aloneros. Capitan Vicente Matta (1832), a pioneering captain who established the progressive fishing and logging village in what is now called Kinatakutan. Capitan Benigno Molines (1841), the forerunner in establishing a logging center along the banks of what is now called the Piris River.

The succeeding administration has been headed by the descendants of these two eldest families until the Philippines were finally ceded by Spain to the United States by the Treaty of Paris on December 10, 1898.
Being a seaport, Guinayangan became important to the occupation forces of the United States as a supply center. Firstly because it is a good military base which supported the principal fighting forces at Atimonan and secondly is the absence of well-organized revolutionary forces. The Japanese Army found the same condition during the World War II

Military government had been set up by the American Expeditionary Forces  from 1902 to 1904 when the civil government was established. In 1904 the first municipal election was held and elected Mr. Victoriano L.Evangelista as the first Municipal President. The American Regime was divided into two phases, the Government of the Philippine Islands and the Commonwealth of the Philippines. The following were the elected President and Municipal Mayors: Victoriano L.Evangelista (1904-1906), Jesus Lagdameo (1906-1908), Jose Tolentino (1908-1909), Feliciano Roldan(1909-1911), Silvestre Reformado (1911-1915), Jose San Juan (1915-1919), Rodrigo Garcia Matta (1919-1922), Jose San Juan (1922-1925), Faustino Araña (1925-1931), Vicente Tolentino (1931-1937), Antonio Marquez (1937-1941), Lazaro Tayag (1941-)

As soon as the military government of the Philippines had been , public schools were opened, land reforms had been promulgated, commerce and industries had been organized and social reforms were made. The living condition of the people was improved, the feudal system was entirely abolished and the people easily adopted the democratic ways of living. The improvement in the community as well as in any part of the country advanced rapidly. Thru the public school system, illiteracy gradually diminished. Health and sanitation had improved immensely thru the establishment of the Health Service and criminal delinquency had been minimized.

The autonomous government under the Jones Law was established during the term of Antonio Marquez who became the first Municipal Mayor followed by Vicente Tolentino and ended with Dr.Lazaro Tayag when the World War II broke out. The chains of good administration undedr the American period came to an end. The interruption due to the temporary occupation of the Philippines by Japan have turned out the following administrators of the local government sponsored by the Japanese Imperial Army: Hipolito Veloso (1942-), Victoriano Alejar (1942-1944)

The progress attained by the people of Guinayangan during the short period of American Occupation had been interrupted by the War. During the Japanese occupation personal liberties had been curtailed. Educational system had been changed. Western culture had been prohibited and substituted by the Japanese culture. In spite of all the Japanese imposition s on the revised educational system, the Japanese sponsored government did not succeed because the people of Guinayangan were not responsive. Many people have gone underground to organize resistance movement and even those who remained in town did not send their children to school but indirectly joined the guerilla organizations, In fact, many of those who had been suspected were killed by the Japanese even during the period where the Japanese Imperial Government recognized the puppet Philippine Republic.

Notable among the various guerilla organizations whose members were the people of Guinayangan were the Matta’s Unit and the Vera’s Party. Both these organizations have harassed the Japanese forces in many encounters and above all kept and maintained the spirit of resistance and encouraged the people to fight actively and passively for liberation.

A few days before Christmas in 1944, Guinayangan was raided by the Japanese soldiers stationed in Tagkawayan and killed not less than 20 persons in the poblacion without any cause. The innocent civilians were prominent members of the local society and others were government officials. Among them was Mr.Graciano Almario, a known businessman, Mr. Sotero Tampok and Mr. Antonio Juarez, both employees in the local government before the war and 18 others. Homes of merchants and well to do families were looted if not by the Japanese soldiers themselves, by other pro Japanese elements who turned bandits.
Those appointed by the Japanese Occupation Forces to lead the puppet government of Guinayangan were Dr.Hipolito Velasco followed by Mr. Victoriano Alejar.

Immediately upon the disorganization of the Japanese resistance the Guerilla found time to reorganize the local government but this did not last long for the Philippine Civil Affairs Unit (PCAU) of the United States Army took over as soon as they reached a certain municipality. The first officer to be appointed by the Guerilla Government of Guinayangan was Mr. Timoteo C. Ramos, a prominent school teacher. His appointment was later confirmed by the Philippine Civil Affairs Unit to continue during the military government until the Philippine Commonwealth Government is re organized. Those that have been appointed to lead the local government after liberation were the following: Timoteo C.Ramos (1945-1946), Vicente M.Salumbides, Vice Lazaro Tayag who was in sick leave (1946), Guillermo Garcia (1947-1948),
After the fall of Manila to the American Liberation Army, The Philippine Commonwealth Government under President Sergio Osmeña was reorganized and turned over at Leyte by General Douglas McArthur. Am month after, the seat of government was transferred to Manila.

The first act of the central government is the appoint those who were elected during the election of 1941 and Mr.Timoteo C.Ramos was replaced by Dr.Lazaro Tayag who in 1941 was elected Mayor of this municipality.

The task of the new government had been very difficult. To restore peace and order, the re-establishment of the school system, the reorganization of the health and public service and many others. The rehabilitation of the economic condition of the people is the paramount undertaking at his period due to the lawlessness and other evils brought about by the economic and moral dislocation.
By the year 1949 the improvement was magnitude which warranted the election and Gen.Natividad B.Matta was elected the Municipal Mayor followed by the election of Mr.Mariano Roldan in 1952.

Collected and Compiled by:
Mrs.Salome L.Ramirez
Mrs.Adela V.Escobar
Ms. Lourdes B.Caisido
Mr.Timoteo Ramos

With the help of:
Mr.Pedro C.Pujalte
Mr.Placido Isaac
Mr. Ladislao Molines

Excerpt from the manuscript: 
Collection And Compilation Of Historical Data And Cultural Life Of The
Municipality Of Guinayangan Including Its Barrios And Sitios, 
Province of Quezon, Philippines
Philippine (Republic) Bureau Of Public Schools
Division Of Quezon

Manlayo History

On the northeastern part of Guinayangan lies extending longitudinally more than a kilometer from the poblacion, a narrow strip of land boarding the inner portion of Ragay Gulf, a fishing village of Guinayangan, called by many as Manlayo. In the olden days, however, it was known as “Sabang Matanda”. The name Manlayo is of somewhat funny origin. It was said that there known as “Karibukan”, a corrupted or otherwise awkward pronunciation for the Tagalog word, “Kalibukan” meaning Charlatan. This man was a vicious drinker of wine and tuba. Every time he was drunk he would swim from Sabang Matanda to the Poblacion.
Whenever asked where he lived, he would answer with a lousy gesture, “layo” or “doon layo”, actually meaning “malayo”, far, pointing Sabang Matanda. He could not correctly express the name of the place by reason of his thick Visayan accent and unfamiliarity with Tagalog dialect. From that time on to the present, Sabang Matanda has been called Manlayo, now forming a subdivision of the town Guinayangan.

The first known settlers of this place were a lone man named Gavino Buenaventura. He planted a portion of the place with coconut trees. Later title and ownership to the land passed by right of purchase and sale to Claro Lagdameo y Evangelista. Then to his son Victoriano Lagdameo as inheritance from the former upon his death. When Claro Lagdameo y Evangelista died, there arose a dispute over ownership of this land between the Municipal Council who claimed the land as patrimonial property of Guinayangan. Hence, the case went to court and the latter after proper hearing and trial adjudicated the in favor of the heirs of Claro Lagdameo y Evangelista.

From 1912 to 1934, Manlayo had never been known even a semblance of limited freedom in the administration of its domestic affairs. It was directly under the control and supervision of the Municipal Vice President (Vice Mayor during the American Period) of Guinayangan. However in 1934 during the incumbency of Antonio Marquez as Municipal President, Manlayo was made a subdivision of Guinayangan with Gervasio Pila as its teniente followed by Canuto David and then by Felizardo Manalo.

During the Spanish regime, Manlayo was still an uninhabited place and therefore no historical facts or incidents could possibly be related. For there cannot be any human history where there are no personage to move about the curtain in the drama of human events.

Upon the implantation in the Philippines of the American sovereignty, Manlayo gradually appeared into the limelight of politics. As people began to dwell and seek livelihood in this peaceful and beneficient place with its waters abounding in fish inarticulately offering a good way to carry on with life. Thus Manlayo since has taken part actively in politics even as the people were striving for economic sufficiency. They did not, however, labor in vain in the political field because they were rewarded in the forms of improvement and sanitation, health, better water supplies and the extension of educational benefits.

When the war broke out in 1941, Manlayo was made to share the bitterness of life with the people of the Philippines. Under the unbearable yoke of tyranny forcibly imposed upon a vanquished and oppressed people by the bow legged Mikado Warriors. Whose destiny was to conquer, and enslave consistence with their mission of world domination at the sacrifice of the weak and peace loving. The people of Manlayo realizing the futility of resistance in the face of an ever powering enemy hid all signs of stubbornness in their breast. Pledge their outward cooperation with the Japanese masters but ever nurturing with solemn and ardent prayers, fervent hopes of rightful revenge and vindication of God’s appointed time. When the liberating army of the United States was about to strike its final blow for the final redemption of the distressed people of the Pacific, the people of Manlayo consistent with their prayers and hopes joined the underground movement. When the Japanese learned of this, they treacherously attacked the residents undercover of dawn and massacred slumbering people. About 27 innocent civilians have been killed mercilessly.

With the immense destruction of war, this progressive village bravely started life anew. The rehabilitation was rapid so that when the Commonwealth governments talk of politics the inhabitants became very active. The people openly participated in political campaigns for their respective parties. The nominated candidates for municipal positions and some of their young men were given position of trust and confidence. Conspicuous among them is the Municipal Secretary who comes from the place. In the first election after the war they all went Liberals. Lately, however, there disintegration in their political affiliation.

The people of Manlayo largely live in fishing as the source of their livelihood. In fact, the name Manlayo has been associated with fishing industry. Majority of the people are fishermen with deep sea fishing their best. The women are industrious and sell the catch of their husband in the market. Others are engaged in drying , smoking and icing fish for sale in neighboring towns and even exported to Lucena and Manila.

Compiled by: 
Mrs.Juana M. Araya

Excerpt from the manuscript: 
Collection And Compilation Of Historical Data And Cultural Life Of The
Municipality Of Guinayangan Including Its Barrios And Sitios, 
Province of Quezon, Philippines
Philippine (Republic) Bureau Of Public Schools
Division Of Quezon

Cabibihan History

According to the remaining inhabitants, no authentic record about its history or its beginnings has been handed to them. It was said that the place was named by the aborigines or the Aetas who first inhabited this region. Ever since the establishment of the barangay, it was already called Cabibihan.  The presence of many clams, locally called “cabebe” or “bebe” which abounds plenty in the bank of the river and its beds. During rainy season especially when there was flood, there were plenty of clams or “bebe” on the river beds, thus this became a good source of income and food among the people.

The early settlers of Cabibihan were the Flaviers, Rufulis, De Los Santos, Cerillas, Guerreros, Salvadors, Maravillas, and Avilas. These families became the leaders in nearly all fields of activities such in economies, culture and beliefs.

From the year 1920 to 1935, Cabibihan was a very progressive community. The big Tayabas Saw Mill which finally became the famous Cabibihan Saw Mill was owned and operated by an American capitalist, Lucy Carvender. Later on , the sawmill was bought and owned by a Chinese businessman named Sy Cumbing. Unfortunately during its boom, the saw mill burned in 1935 for unknown reason. Thus the decline of its progress was so rapid that many of its inhabitants left and settled to nearby barangays.

During the existence of the saw mill in this locality, the populace experienced better means of livelihood as there was much labor for the masses. The daily output of the mill was approximately 30k board feet, this account for the national prestige of Cabibihan. But after the burning of the mill, the economic, social and civic life of the people greatly changed. The people begun to leave the place. Resulting the closing of the public primary school.

Prominent among the Barrio Lieutenants (Barangay Captain) who have done much for the progress of the place are Isabelo Rofuli, Alipo Silverio, Serafin Maravilla, Patricio Guerrero, Cecilio De Los Santos, Jorge Avila, Emilio Victor,Carlos Salvador, Nicomedes Cerilla, Mauro Guerrero, and Pruvo Salvador.

The only important facts which was in the memory of people was the establishment of one of the biggest sawmills In the Philippines. The Cabibihan Sawmill had the national prestige. The were no historical sites and structures save the ruins of the nice Cabibihan Tennis Court constructed by the Cabibihan Tennis Club. The ruins of the railroad line constructed by the sawmill for this transportation of logs and lumbers and its tracks.
Likewise, the Japanese Occupation and the Liberation Period have not left any historical incident in the localities. Destruction and loss of properties were due to looting and stealing. But they have been rehabilitated by the Philippine War Damage Commission and little financial assistance of the government.

Compiled by: 
Mr. Sergio Nebres

Excerpt from the manuscript: 
Collection And Compilation Of Historical Data And Cultural Life Of The
Municipality Of Guinayangan Including Its Barrios And Sitios, 
Province of Quezon, Philippines
Philippine (Republic) Bureau Of Public Schools
Division Of Quezon

Triumpo History

The present official name of this barangay is Triumpo, a Spanish word meaning Truimph or Victory. This barangay being victorious in their fight for separation from the mother barangay of Aloneros.
Is was established in the year 1906 with the old name San Miguel, named after its Patron Saint, San Miguel. 

The original settlers were the families of Agustin Cerilla, Prudencio Lerum, cipriano Lerum, Angel San Antonio, Santiago Agam, Mauro Agam, Modesto Fernandez, Catalino Pera, Cosme Pera, Julian Serdeña, Perfecto Cerilla, Macario Cerilla, Felix Serbuna, and Felix Cerilla.

The following became the Barrio Lieutenants (Barangay Captain) of the said place: Agustin Cerilla, Prudencio Lerum, Angel San Antonio, Felix Surbona, Luis Surbona, Mariano Surbona, Santiago Agam, Esteban Agam, Mauro Agam, Estanislao Serdeña, and Felix de los Santos.

There was no depopulated sitio which became extinct. Foremerely Calauag claimed for the barrio. There was a legal fight between Guinayangan and Calauag resulting to the victory of Guinayangan. This victory also account for the naming of the barrio Triumpo.

There were no historical sites, structures, buildings or old ruins in the place. There were no events of national importance during the Spanish regime. During the Ameri can regime, the World War II took place. But the war never gave any heavy damage to the place because of isolation and it is very far from communication and transportation. The Japanese Imperial Army did not pay any attention to the place.

 Compiled by: 
Miss Lydia Ogaña

Excerpt from the manuscript: 
Collection And Compilation Of Historical Data And Cultural Life Of The
Municipality Of Guinayangan Including Its Barrios And Sitios, 
Province of Quezon, Philippines
Philippine (Republic) Bureau Of Public Schools
Division Of Quezon

Maligaya History

It was in the year 1907 the Abrencillo family settled in this land covered with thick cogon and forest. This family cleared, cultivated and planted the place with rice, corn, sugarcane, and other crops. This little prosperity enjoyed by the immigrants attracted other settlers and the families of Enriquez, Silva, Ricamara, Perez, and Jovitas followed the Abrencillos. Other groups then followed until it has become a prosperous village.

The population increased and the people petitioned the Municipal Council of Guinayangan to make this place an independent Barrio. It was approved and it finally called “Maligaya”, Tagalog word for happy. It accounted for the fact that the people due to its prosperity enjoyed the living there with full of happiness. So thats why they called the place Maligaya. In 1919 due to its progress and increasing population, two parts demand for separation. These were Batis Maligaya and Bukal Maligaya.

The original families were the Abrencillos, Mendozas, Enriquez, Silas, Perez, Jovitas, Ricamaras and the Calmas. The founder of the place was Martin Abrencillo.
The following became the barrio lieutenants of the place: Martin Abrencillo, Jesus Abrencillo, Hilario Abrencillo, Daniel Mendoza, and Hilario Abrencillo.

There was no depopulated barrio nor historical sites or structures, building and old ruins. The destructions during the World War II was not so great. It has been slightly rehabilitated by the Philippine War Damage Commission.

Bukal Maligaya
This place is called Bukal Maligaya. Its name was derived from its original name Barrio Maligaya. The word Bukal was originated from the existence of a clear “bukal”, the Tagalog for spring, on that place. This is where the locals fetch fresh drinking water. There is a continuous flow of fresh water even during the summer time. The fact that the people had always lived in abundance of foods even during the Japanese Occupation, with undying spring or real “bukal”. It was for these reasons why the place was called Bukal Maligaya.

Bukal Maligaya was established in the year 1937 with the following families as the settlers: Martin Abrencillo, Sofronio Butardo, Jesus Abrencillo, and Hilario Abrencillo. The prominent “Teniente del Barrio” who have done much for its progress were Castro Perez and Guillermo Evita.

There was no sitio which has been depopulated or became extinct. There were no historical sites, structures, buildings, or old ruins. There were no remarkable events that took place, neither during the Spanish period nor the American Regime. Worthwhile remembering only was the slight destruction to property made during the Japanese Occupation. These destructions anyway have been easily rehabilitated and reconstructed by the help of the PCAU and the Philippine War Damage Commission and by the industry of the people.



Batis Maligaya
(*Danlagan Batis)

The former barrio of Maligaya became so progressive that in 1907 it separated into two entities namely Batis Maligaya and Bukal Maligaya. The development of the said barrio was due to the leadership and pioneering spirit of the early family that lived there, The Abrencillos. In one of the sitios is a big spring situated In the center of the place which become the favorite rendezvous of the residents. From the spring the people get their drinking water for irrigation, drinking spot of animals, and the very place where people wash their clothes. It is therefore their important natural resource and an asset because it never dries up even during summer. It is therefore from this spring or Batis in Tagalog word where they got its name Batis Maligaya.

The early settlers were the families of Enriquez, Silvas and Ricamaras. These families have not done more than what the Abrencillos have done for the improvement of the said place. The Barrio Lieutenants who served since the establishment of this place were Adriano Enriquez, Venancio Silva. Vicente Ricamara. There was no historical record available of the original barrio until after it has been subdivided.
The last world war did not affect the lives of the people as there were no destructions made to property and lives. This was attributed to the fact that the said place is far from the highway and is not accessible by good road or trails which keep the place unnoticed by the invading Japanese Imperial Army.

This independent Barangay was formerly a part and within the jurisdiction of Danlagan. This place was popularly known as Danlagan Batis, It was so called “Batis” because of the endless flow of water coming from the spring surrounding the barrio. “Batis”, therefore is a Tagalog word for spring and is being added to the word Danlagan.

Danlagan Batis was formerly and partly a sitio of Maligaya while its other part is within Danlagan. In 1924 an association was organized composed of laborers. This association was known as Laborers Association headed by Melecio Fernandez. It was organized to help them one another. With the strong cooperation of the members, and the belief that they could manage their own affairs, they petitioned proper authorities to subdivide Maligaya into to two entities. Thus Batis Maligaya the part comprising mostly the original Maligaya and Danlagan Batis boredering and a part of Danlagan was then called Danlagan Batis.

This Barrio (Barangay) was established in 1925. The original families were the Enriquez and the Escobios. The following names are the people who became the head leader or Teniente del Barrio. Adriano Enriquez, Pedro Escobio, Venancio Silva, Clemente Rejener, Moises Villasin, Crispin Verdera, Vicente Ricamara and Florentino Manalo.

The fact that this sitio was formerly a part of Maligaya and Danlagan accounts for the absence of depopulated or extinct sitios.
During the Spanish Regime, the place being a thick forest became the sanctuary and refuge of bandits and highwaymen.

During the American Regime, the place improved well and the agriculture advanced.
During the war especially under the occupation of the Japanese Imperial Army, there were great destruction to property. Looting and stealing are so rampant, and confiscation made by the Japanese soldiers have existed in the absence of a strong government.

The place was partly rehabilitated by the PCAU and the Philippine War Damage Commission. A private Chinese capitalist from Lucena by the name of Lu Kang constructed a private road from Danlagan to San Antonio crossing Danlagan Batis and Batis Maligaya for logging ang lumbering purposes. This road greatly helped the people. It has made the transportation of goods and people easy.

Compiled by:
Mr. Bonifacio Dimarocot
Ms. Leonida Nepomuceno

Ms. Josefina Valencia

Excerpt from the manuscript: 
Collection And Compilation Of Historical Data And Cultural Life Of The
Municipality Of Guinayangan Including Its Barrios And Sitios, 
Province of Quezon, Philippines
Philippine (Republic) Bureau Of Public Schools
Division Of Quezon

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