Posted by J BC on Saturday, August 1, 2015
My name is Earl Carter, the proud son of Guinayangan-native Rosalinda Manalo Carter. A few months ago I was fortunate enough to be able to visit Guinayangan for the first time with my mother. My only regret is that I didn't visit sooner, also that I wasn't able to stay longer. It is such a beautiful place, a great experience for me, the one that I will remember forever and hopefully I will enjoy it again.
I would like to use this as an opportunity to thank everyone in Guinayangan, especially to my family and newfound friends. I thank them for their hospitality, for being so friendly and courteous, and for welcoming me in as one of their own. Some of the local kids even gave me a new nickname: "White Giant" and "American Giant". My friends here in the U.S. have decided to make the nickname permanent--they thank the kids for that one.
While walking near a fishport with my mother, a group of young children started following us, they were curious and giggling. They are amazed at how white my legs (my father is of Irish descent and my complexion is very light) and how big my hands and feet were. Some of them even measured their hands against mine and then laughed, which made me and my mother laughed too.
I got the chance to meet all my cousins and aunts and other relatives. Sadly I did not make it there in time to meet my grandmother, Lucia Manalo, who was brought home to heaven before I arrived. I enjoyed the conversations I had with my cousins William, Wilson, Rona and Rochelle, as well as Rochelle's boyfriend Christian. I thank all of them for their excellent English, since I haven't learned Tagalog yet. Gladly there were no nosebleeding incident happened.
I got the chance to play basketball with my cousin William and Christian and many of the local kids at the basketball court. I am so amazed at how some of the guys were able to play in slippers or even barefoot. They were very fast and agile too.
I saw my family's coconut farm at Brgy.Dungawan and met friends of the family there. I met a young boy named Martin, who enjoyed coloring the Ninjago drawings that I drew for him. My mother and I also took a boat ride to the lighthouse built in an island called Parola. My younger brother Neil also visited this place when he was a young boy. He loved swimming there with all the friends he made while visiting Guinayangan.
We had a family picnic at the Salacan Resort. I enjoyed delicious food cooked by my Tita Norma. We enjoy the nature and the swimming pool. I shot a lot of family pictures to keep.
I remember when I first arrived in this lovely town; it was about 4:30 in the morning. I was able to take pictures of a beautiful sunrise in a place called Bayside Inn. Those were the first of many pictures I would take throughout the town during my visit. Hopefully someday I can return again with my mom, my brother Neil, my sister Joy, and her son Joey (Joey would love to meet his cousin Jason). In fact, my brother was jealous that I was able to visit Guinayangan as an adult. Maybe because he was only five years old then when he visited this place, not old enough to really remember the whole experience.
My brother Neil (5 years old then) during his visit in Guinayangan.
Soon I will return on this lovely place---so please tell the kids that the "White Giant" will return . . . bringing more chocolates and paper throwing stars.
Posted by J BC on Tuesday, July 28, 2015
Bumalik sa Labac Naic Cavite ang karamihan ng aking kamaganak noong wala ng mahuling isda at iba pang Marine Life sa atin. Nagbaligtad naman ang naging buhay sa Manlayo. Bumalik sila sa Cavite at naswertihan naman nila ang dagat doon.
Ang pag babalik nila sa Labac Naic Cavite ang nagbigay naman ng magandang kapalaran sa kanilang buhay. Yan din ang nakakalungkot ngayon sa atin. Nawala ang mga Marine Life sa ginawang pangaabuso ng mga mangingisda na gumamit ng dinamita. Ang ating mga Coral Reefs ay namatay kasama ang mga itlog ng isda , alimasag, hipon at halos lahat ng buhay sa karagatan ay namatay. Sana'y wala ng mangabuso pa ngayon na unti unti na uling bumabalik ang kayamanan ng ating Mahal ba Dagat.
Pakiusap ko lamang sa ating nga Mahal na Kababayan at Kamaganak na panatilihing Malinis at Maganda ang ating paligid para sa atin na ring kabutihan. Maraming maraming salamat sa inyong lahat dyan na walang patid ang pagtutulong tulong sa ikauunlad ng ating Mahal na Bayan .
narrated by: Ms. Rosie Carter
republished from: Sa Tabing Dagat
(with permission by the author)
Posted by J BC on Tuesday, June 30, 2015
The 1973 Ragay Gulf earthquake produced an on-shore surface rupture approximately 30 km in length along the Guinayangan segment of the Philippine fault in southern Luzon Island. Through geologic mapping and paleoseismic trenching, we have characterized the amount of coseismic offsets, the average recurrence in-terval, and the slip rate of the segment.
The coseismic offsets we identiﬁed in the ﬁeld were fairly constant along the fault, ranging from 1 to 2 m. Paleoseismic trenching at the Capuluan Tulon site exposed strati-graphic evidence for three or possibly four surface-rupturing events after the deposition of strata datedat AD 410–535. The average recurrence interval wascalculated to be 360–780 years, which is close to that for the Digdig fault, thesourcefault of the1990centralLuzon earthquake. The slip rate, based on the calcu-lated recurrence interval and offsets during the 1973earthquake, has been calculated to be 2.1–4.4 mm/yr.This rate is signiﬁcantly smaller than the geodetic slipand creep rates of 20–25 mm/yr estimated for thePhilippine fault on the islands of Masbate and Leyte.The slip rate deﬁcit may be explained by the possi-bilities of underestimation of the recurrence interval due to possible missing paleoseismic events within thestratigraphic records, the occurrence of larger earth-quakes in the past, and the aseismic fault creep be-tween the surface-rupturing earthquakes.
|Tectonic setting and epicenters of surface-rupturingearthquakes on the Philippine fault since 1970 (stars).|
The 1973 Ragay Gulf Earthquake
Fault trace of the Guinayangan segment of the Philippine fault cutting across the Bondoc Peninsula. The fault trace in the Ragay Gulf is from . The star indicates the epicenter of the 1973 earthquake.
Topographic map of the Capuluan Tulon trenchsite constructed using a total station. The contour intervalis 20 cm, and the elevation is relative to the lowest pointwithin the surveyed area. The trench site and offset coconuttree lines are also shown.
|Log of part of the north wall of the trench at the Capuluan Tulon site. The triangle indicates the location of ashell sample as projected from the south wall. Rectangles indicate where bulk soil samples were taken. Grid interval is1 m.|
Coconut tree roots are abundant down to this unit. This unit exhibits a uniform thickness of 30 cm throughout the trench wall A bulk soil sample from the lowermost part of unit 20 yielded a 14C ageof395±20yBP (AD 1445–1500,1505–1510, 1600–1615). Immediately below the ground surface is modern soil composed of brown silt to clay characterized by a blocky texture, unit 10. It is 50 cm thick at the southwestern edge of the trench and gradually thins to the northeast.
A distinct shear zone appeared between N7.1 and 8.1with ﬁve fault strands, named F1 to F5 . In addition to stratigraphic offsets by the fault strands, the strata are warped into a monocline down to the southwest. These fault strands dip greater than 70◦.The westernmost fault, F1, clearly offsets the top of unit 80 with 16 cm of stratigraphic separation measured Journalof DisasterResearchVol.10No.1,2015 8 along the fault.
The extension of F1 within unit 70 is invisible. F1 does not cut the top of unit 70 and is interpreted to terminate upward within unit 70. F2 cuts all the stratigraphic horizons exposed on the trench wall. The stratigraphic offsets by F2 are 16 cm (top of unit 80),10 cm (top of unit 60), 5 cm (top of unit 50), 5 cm(top of unit 40), 13 cm (top of unit 30), and 13 cm (topof unit 20). The fault is invisible within unit 10, and the ground surface is ﬂat across the fault. F3 is identiﬁed based on a10 cm offset of both the top and base of unit 80. Although invisible within unit 70, F3 may merge upward into F2. F4 branches upward from F3 near the trench bottom and dips steeply to the southwest. Unit 80 is sharply offset 20 cm by F4. Neither the top nor the base of unit 60 can be traced across the possible upward extension of F4, suggesting that the unit is truncated byF4. However, unit 40 is not cut by F4, suggesting that F4 terminates upward within unit 50. F5 is the eastern most fault strand. The fault is clearly identiﬁed by the off set of unit 80; the lower boundary of unit 80 is offset 20 cm. The thickness of unit 80 changes from 40 cm (southwest)to 30 cm (northeast) across the fault, suggesting horizontal displacement. This strand is also invisible within the over lying strata, and unit 40 is not offset by the fault.
Recurrence Interval and Slip Rate
We identiﬁed evidence for three (Events 1, 3, and 4) and possibly four (Events 1–4) faulting events, including the 1973 earthquake, occurring since the deposition of unit 80. A bulk soil sample from unit 80 was dated at AD 1170–1260. However, a bulk soil sample from unit 40 yielded an almost similar age (AD 1185–1265), raising a question as to the reliability of ages from bulk soil samples. Therefore, we used the age of a shell sample from unit 90 (AD 410–535) to calculate the average recurrence interval of the three and possibly four seismic events. The shortest possible average recurrence interval (assuming four paleoseismic events) would be(1973−535)4 ≈ 360 years and the longest possible interval (assuming three paleo-seismic events) would be(1973−410)2 ≈ 780 years These recurrence intervals determined for the Guinayangan segment are close to that of the Digdig fault (i.e., 500–600 years, determined by trenching),which ruptured during the 1990 earthquake.
The Guinayangan segment may have ruptured with a shorter recurrence interval than those we calculated, because we used the age of unit 90, not unit 80, for the calculation of the average recurrence intervals.We can estimate the slip rate of the Guinayangan segment of the Philippine fault based on coseismic offset during the 1973 earthquake and calculated recurrence intervals. The mean of the four offset measurements of rows of coconut trees at the trench site is 1.6 m.Using the shortest and longest average recurrence intervals above, we estimate the slip rate of 2.1–4.4 mm/yr based on the assumption of characteristic slip.
This rate is signiﬁcantly smaller than the GPS-derived slip rate of 22±2 mm/yr on Masbate Island or the 20 mm/yr creep rate derived from offset cultural features on Leyte Island. The slip rate deﬁcit may be caused by one ora combination of the following:
1) we underestimatedthe recurrence interval due to possible missing paleoseis-mic events within the stratigraphic record at the Capu-luan Tulon site,
2) earthquakes with larger coseismic dis-placements have occurred in the past,
3) the fault creepsaseismically in addition to rupturing moderate- to large-earthquakes, similar to what we recently identiﬁed on the Masbate segment.
Based on the calculated recurrence intervaland coseismic offsets during the 1973 earthquake, we estimated the slip rate of the Guinayangan segment to be 2.1–4.4 mm/yr. This geologic slip rate was signiﬁcantly lower than the geodetic slip and creep rates estimated forthe Philippine fault on Masbate and Leyte Islands. Our paleoseismic data were derived from only one site, so additional trenching is necessary to document the complete faulting history of the Guinayangan segment.
Southern Luzon, Philippines
Hiroyuki Tsutsumi -Department of Geophysics, Kyoto University Kitashirakawa-oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502, JapanE-mail: email@example.com
Jeffrey S. Perez, Kathleen L. Papiona, Jaime U. Marjes -Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)C. P. Garcia Avenue, Quezon City 1101, Philippines
Noelynna T. Ramos -National Institute of Geological Sciences, University of the Philippines, Diliman C. P. Garcia Avenue, Quezon City 1101, Philippines
We are grateful to local administrative ofﬁcialsand residents for sharing their information on surface ruptures.